Archive for October, 2012

I was sent this one earlier on, and I had to smile. ‘Bucko’s Red Army’ by the brilliantly named Joxer and the Skidmarks has been released to coincide with the FAI Cup Final on Sunday, a replay of the 2006 final which Saint Patrick’s Athletic lost 4-3 to Derry City.

Come on you Saints, no time to waste, Revenge for Zero-Six
Go out against the Candystripes and we can get our kicks
Fahey said he’ll be there, I hope it’s not a lie
He’s said he’ll come and bang the drum with the S.E.I.

Some in the crowd on Sunday will remember the boys of ’59 and ’61, who last brought the cup home to Inchicore. They’ll remember Willie Peyton, who last won it for us. They’ll remember the late and great Paddy Ginger O’Rourke. Those of us too young to remember those finals will be hoping for new heroes.

Tickets priced €10 for adults and €5 for children are available now from the Saint Patrick’s Athletic offices in Inchicore, Ticketmaster and on the day at Lansdowne Road.

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Thanks to Sarah Rose Parsons for bringing our attention to these beautiful colourised slides of Dublin City from the Special Collections at University of California, Santa Cruz. The photographer is unknown but we are told they were taken between 1932 and 1935.

Our old friend Henry Grattan is looking well here. The two benches and the telephone boxes are long gone today but the two gas lamp standards, decorated with carved Hippocampus (Sea Horses) still remain. There used to be four but the other two disappeared sometime in the 20th century. For more historic pictures of the statue, check out an old post of ours from January 2010.

Henry Grattan (1932 – 1935). Credit – University of California, Santa Cruz

O’Meara’s public house, known as The Irish House, which sat on the corner of Winetavern Street and Wood Quay from 1870 to 1968 is seen here with a group of relatively well dressed children outside. For more on this pub, have a look at one of our posts from May.

The Irish House pub (1932 – 1935). Credit – University of California, Santa Cruz

This looks like a drayman taking a break from work. My g-grand uncle was a drayman with Murphys Brewery in Cork in the early 1900s. I read in the book A Bottle of Guinness Please that the arrival of motor transport in the 1930s quickly killed off this occupation. The author David Hughes said that Guinness closed their stables in 1932 apparently. So it’s interesting to see that this chap was still working in the middle years of that decade, possibly with another brewery? Or is he employed in another occupation altogether?

A worn drayman with top hat and grey mustache in Dublin (1932-1935). Credit – University of California, Santa Cruz

View the other 23 slides here at the Retronaut website.

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This brilliant image was posted to the James Connolly Bridge Campaign page by Moira Murphy, and shows the great Edinburgh trade unionist as you’ve never seen him before. If you don’t get the reference, it comes from the character Bane in Batman who urges the citizens of Gotham to “take control” of their city. We like it.

We’re still torn between the James Connolly Bridge and Job Bridge, but we’ll see how it goes.

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The smashing of the cows.

A recently vandalised Derry cow. (Belfast Telegraph)

A part of me couldn’t help but laugh recently hearing news from Derry, where the CowParade recently rolled into town and was attacked. A Belfast Telegraph reported from October 10th notes that:

Two of the fibreglass animals which form part of the CowParade NI were targeted at the weekend.

The two life-sized sculptures were located in the heart of the city centre at a landscaped park opposite the Guildhall.
The cows were painted by local artists and community groups at the Playhouse Theatre and at Maydown.

They are now being removed so the damage can be assessed, and as a result of the destruction they will be relocated indoors once repaired.

Next year marks a decade since fiberglass cows were placed across the city of Dublin as part of the same project, with many of them vandalised and ultimately moved indoors. Even then, they were targeted in many cases.

‘When Cows Fly’ – one of the vandalised Dublin cows.

CowParade events have been staged in over 75 cities worldwide, including New York, Istanbul and Milan. The project began in 1999, and it describes itself as the “largest and most successful public art event in the world.” The project has raised in excess of thirty million Dollars for charities worldwide, yet it’s 2003 run in Dublin was marred by the destruction of many of the cows, with Dublin becoming the only city at the time where the exhibition had to become an entirely indoors affair.

The CowParade in Dublin attracted a lot of media attention in the run up the public art project launching, with Kevin Sharkey discussing the project on the Late Late Show months before the cows were placed on Dublin’s streets. In an interview prior to the launch of CowParade, the CEO of Bord Fáilte told the Irish Independent that “the challenge is to be different from other cities, to somehow better everything that’s gone before us and really capture that quirky Dublin humour.”

Robert Ballagh, John Rocha, Gavin Friday, Graham Knuttel, Andrea Corr, Ronnie Woods and Felim Egan were just some of the names involved in the project here, and Rocha’s cow would sell for an incredible €125,000, bought by the Wagamamma restaurant in Dublin city centre.

The cows proved an irresistible temptation to Dublin vandals. In an interview with The Irish Times, Gerard Beshoff (director of the CowParade in Dulin) noted that at first only 10 cows were exhibited on the streets, and all 10 were vandalised within days. One cow was decapitated, while another had its wings cut from it. The cow on Liffey Street, which stood outside Pravda, was damaged in such a manner that a saw would have been required. The head of the cow was later discovered outside Cleary’s on O’Connell Street.

‘Moo Chulainn’ displayed on Dawson Street.

Organisers had planned to place 69 of the cows on the streets of Dublin, but the plan was quickly abandoned. Of the 69 which were placed around the capital indoors and outdoors, half were vandalised. They were eventually auctioned in November at the Four Seasons Hotel, before the CowParade moved on to pastures new.

The vandalism of the cows in Dublin sparked discussion both at home and abroad. Dr. Sarah Wagner-McCoy, an assistant professor at Reed College,noted that:

In other cities, the public loved the cows so much that they would defend them if anyone tried to vandalize them, but in Dublin, the cows were smashed, stolen, beheaded and covered in graffiti, even after the exhibit was officially over and the cows were moved to less public places.

Wagner-McCoy’s suggested that this phenomenon went back to the destruction of monuments in Dublin historically, which had been found politically disagreeable by Irish nationalists. Perhaps a better historic precedent was the ‘Bowl of Light’, which had sat on O’Connell Bridge prior to part of it being flung into the river by vandals in 1953.

“It’s so depressing, but not surprising” said Amy Wallace, a CowParade Ireland account executive, to The Irish Times at the time of the pointless vandalism.”The awful thing is, we were kind of expecting it in Dublin.”

‘Tiogar: Celtic Tiger’ – Displayed in the IFSC.

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Whereas today, the words Donnybrook Fair elicit visions of Ross O’Carroll Kelly characters buying tiger prawns, Perrier and “gourmet goods” in a store whose business surely boomed during the Celtic Tiger years, look up the word Donnybrook in the dictionary and you’ll see something like this:

don·ny·brook [don-ee-brook] noun (often initial capital letter) an inordinately wild fight or contentious dispute; brawl; free-for-all.

For the original Donnybrook Fair was not the food store that services D4 residents, but a Fair established by the Royal Charter of 1204 “to compensate Dubliners for the expense of building walls and defences around the city.” It  lasted fifteen days from the latter end of August until mid-September, was held annually for over six hundred years, and by the mid 19th Century would become the most important fair on the island.

Erkine Nichol, “Donnybrook Fair,” 1859

Originally billed as a horse fair, the run up to the event would see traders of everything from exotic fruits to horse manure set up their stalls on Donnybrook Green. Calling it a horse fair was slightly misleading, as horses were rarely on show, and those that were, were said to be fit for little but the glue factory. As sparse as the display of horses was, the actual buying and selling of wares was a cover for what was, in essence, a fortnight long drinking session.

By the time it was dissolved by Dublin Corporation in 1855, it had become a cacophonous event famed for music, heavy drinking, cock-fighting and shillelagh swinging. Walter Bagehot in his book The English Constitution of 1867, references the Fair by saying “The only principle recognised … was akin to that recommended to the traditionary Irishman on his visit to Donnybrook Fair, ‘Wherever you see a head, hit it’.” Another quote that gives some idea of the pandemonium appeared in the Freeman’s Journal on 31st August, 1778:

“How irksome it was to friends of the industry and well-being of Society to hear that upwards of 50,000 persons visited the fair on the previous Sunday, and returned to the city like intoxicated savages.”

Traffic to and from the Fair was said to have caused a continuous dust cloud the whole way from town for the two weeks of its duration. Alongside references to open displays of drunkenness, promiscuity (Charles William Grant wrote that “Dancing and flirting took place all round, and love making took place publicly”) and a general lack of respect for authority, historically, Donnybrook Fair is largely remembered for its’ fights and its contribution to the English language dictates this. The daily madness often subsided to nightly slumber, and when stallholders shut up shop at around midnight, participants, too drunk to make their way home would simply sleep on site and the party would just continue where it left off the next morning. A favourite past-time of younger Fair go-ers was to buy cheap treacle tarts known as “treacle tillies” and walk around sticking them to the backs of unsuspecting revelers.

A ‘Fair Fight.’ Samuel Lover, from “The Neighbourhood of Dublin,” by John Joyce.

By the second half of the 19th Century, the establishment had enough of the annual bout of debauchery in Dublin’s suburbs, and a committee, imaginatively called “The Committee for the Abolition of Donnybrook Fair” was established with the aim of raising the £3, 000 required to purchase the license for the fair from it’s holder. One of the members of the committee was the then Lord Mayor of Dublin, Joseph Boyce. The rest, as they say, is history.


Further Reading:


Blacker, Henry Beaver: Brief Sketches Of The Parishes Of Booterstown And Donnybrook. Dublin, 1860

Sweeney, Clair L.: The Rivers  of Dublin. Dublin, 1991.

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From Ultras-Tifo.net

Ultras-Tifo, one of the leading sites for photos of fan actions across Europe, have collected together images of Shamrock Rovers supporters away to Sligo on Friday night. Traditionally the last night of the season is always a colorful one. In the past, we’ve done a ‘In Review’ post at the end of each season showing the actions from Dublin League of Ireland fans over the course of the year, and I’ll be getting that together following the Cup Final next weekend.

I’m not sure who to credit these excellent images to, as I’m taking them direct from Ultras-Tifo, but naturally the photographer must be Irish based so if you know who took these images let us know as it’s always nice to tip a cap in the right direction.

While Sligo had just won their third title, and their first in 35 years, Shamrock Rovers fans chose the 17th minute of the match to begin this spectacle, as they have taken 17 titles.

From Ultras-Tifo.net

From Ultras-Tifo.net

While Sligo Rovers fans also lit their fair share of flares on the night, you have to smile looking at their response banner to the pyrotechnics show above.

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6 Lower Baggot Street

Next to Doheny and Nebitts on Baggot Street, I recently spotted a ‘ghost sign’ above Dowling’s Pharmacy. It clearly reads ‘To His Excellency, The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland’. Flickr user Mic V. has taken an excellent image of this ghost sign which shows it in better detail.

A search in the newspaper archives has not revealed much, but I’m sure someone out there knows the story of this premises or even has a photograph of it in a former life?

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The Mountjoy Hotel, a satirical musical take on the ‘virtues’ of Dublin’s most famous prison, was written by Irish Volunteer Phil O’Neill (a.k.a. Sliabh Ruadh) in 1918. It was sung to the air of ‘The Mountains of Mourne’.

O’Neill wrote a book History of the GAA 1910-1930 in 1931 and was co-author of the Rally Round the Banner Boys book of ballads from around 1920.

Dominic Behan recorded an edited version of song for his 1963 record Peelers and Prisoners (TOP85).

Here is the original text:

The Mountjoy Hotel ‘song’. Credit – mysterypagination.wordpress.com

Also check out this fascinating ‘fake’ menu card drawn up by Republican prisoners for propaganda purposes – taken from The Samuels Collection in Trinity College Dublin.

The Mountjoy Hotel fake Menu Card. Credit – TCD via europeana.eu

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Near TV Youtube Channel

Over the last nine months, Near TV, the community television component of the Coolock based Near Media Co-op has uploaded thirty videos onto Youtube. Quite a number should be of interest to our readers.

A short video in which Near TV talks to Dublin’s immigrant community about Gaelic Games:

A tour of the Casino at Marino, focusing on its architecture and the life of the designer James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont:

A walkthrough of the magnificent Freemasons Lodge on Molesworth Street by Morgan McCreedy:

A tour of Glasnevin Cemetery by tour guide Shane MacThomáis:

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‘Cycling With’

A newish blog which has really grabbed our attention is ‘Cycling With’, which sees Dubliners on their bikes sharing stories about the city they love. We were sent this video, which shows Architectural Historian Ellen Rowley going for a cycle, and I thought it was more than worthy of sharing here. I’ve always had an interest in Herbert Simms and we’ll some day do a brief feature in him for the site, but for now enjoy this excellent video.

Ellen Rowley is an Architectural Historian who lives with her family in Ballybough, Dublin.

We went for a cycle with Ellen and looked at the architectural heritage around parts of Dublin that often goes ignored, the architecture of the 20th Century and her special interest the social housing schemes by the former prolific city architect Herbert Simms.

Ellen recently compiled a book of essays on Irish Architecture “i.e. Patterns of Thought”.

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Following on from yesterday’s look at the 1911 census, here’s a more comprehensive list at the number of atheists and agnostics in the census taken 10 years previously.

In 1901, there were 2 self-confessed Atheists and 20 self-confessed Agnostics in Dublin. The population was 439, 915. Perhaps not surprisingly neither of the 2 Atheists were Irish born. One was from Bradford and the other from the United States.

In 1911 this number had risen to 8 Atheists and 24 Agnostics. So that was a 300% increase in the number of Atheists and  20% increase in the number of Agnostics.

Here is the list:

Atheist bachelor James Honard (30), a servant from Bradford, working at 39 Dominick Street for Thomas McCormack, a Catholic Hotel Proprietor from Westmeath who employed three servants altogether.

Atheist James Honard (30) from Bradford.

Atheist Charles A Moore (35) , a Commercial Traveler from the U.S.A., boarding at 6 Wellington Quay.

Agnostic John Forsyth (46), a ‘Hand Town Bootmaker’ from Navan, Co. Meath, living with Roman Catholic wife and seven children at 4.1 Peters Row, Dublin 8.

Agnostic John Arnall (31), a ‘Metalliferous Mining Agent (Photography)’ from Surrey, England, living with his Catholic wife from London and two children at 15.2,  Grantham Street, Dublin 8.

Agnostic George William Baynham (24), a bank clerk from Dublin City, boarding with a mainly Presbyterian family at 41.2, Blessington Street, Dublin 7.

Agnostic Thomas Boyce (37), a Commercial Clerk at a Biscuit Factory from England, living with his Catholic wife Mary from Galway at 9.1 Eccles Street, Dublin 7.

Biscuit factory clerk and agnostic Thomas Boyce (37)

Agnostic Morgan Dockrell (17), a college undergraduate student from England, boarding at 5.3 Sandycove Avenue West, Co. Dublin

Agnostic Hugh B Faulkner (44), a man with ‘Dividends Interest’ from Dublin, living on his own at 13.2 Ulverton Road, Dalkey, Co. Dublin.

Agnostic John MaCallan (56), an Analytical Chemist from Dublin, living with his Presbyterian mother and two sisters at 14 Malahide Road, Malahide, Co. Dublin.

Agnostic Samuel Montague Martin (40), a Andytrical Chemist from Belfast, living with Presbyterian wife Minnie at 33 Sandymount Avenue, Dublin 4.

Agnostic Gustavys McAlpine (28), a Electrical Engineer from Egland, boarding at 50 Burrow, Howth, Co. Dublin in the house of Thomas Lanbtree (29) a Church of Ireland Railway Official from Co. Meath.

Agnostic Robert Robertson (22), single electrician, boarding at 39 Burrow, Howth, Co. Dublin the home of Thomas Ellis (37), a Catholic Clerk at a Railway Clearing House originally from Cornwall, England.
Agnostic Reginald Alfred Mitchell (31), a ‘L.L.S. Barrister-at-Law In Actual Practice’ from County Monaghan, boarding at 4 Upper Leeson Street, Dublin 4.

Agnostics Isabella Richardson (41), married, and her son Harold B (3), both from Dublin, boarding at 11 Bloomfield Avenue, Portobello, Dublin 8 in the house of Church of Ireland landlady Anna E Wolfe (50) also from Dublin.

Jews, Protestants and Agnostics boarding in Bloomfield Avenue, Portobello.

Agnostic John Strong (22), a single Engineers Apprentice from Dublin, boarding at 1 Martin Villas (?), the home of Patti Farlow (57), a Church of Ireland widow from County Wexford.

Agnostic John Edmond Walshe (54), his agnostic wife Lizzie (52) and their agnostic son Frederick Edmond (21) living at 3, Kimmage (Road?), Dublin 12. John was a retired printer, Frederick was a  Contractor Civil Servant.

Agnostic Widower Robert John Smith (44), a Bank Cashier from Dublin, boarding at 46.1 in Harrington Street, Portobello, Dublin 8, the home of Elizabeth Wannan (53), an Epescopelian Hotel Proprietress from County Wexford.

Athiest Widower Robert John Smith.

Agnostic John H Whyte (30), a carpenter from England, boarding in the home of William C Dunne, a Catholic Assurance Agent at 7 South William Place, Dublin 8.

Agnostic George Orr Wilson (70), a Land Owner from County Antrim, who lived with three servants at 73 Temple Road, Blackrock, Co. Dublin.

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Today’s Irish Times article reported there has been ‘a four-fold increase in the number of people who said they had no religion, were atheists or agnostics, since 1991′ in Ireland.

While it was extremely rare, there were a small number of admitted ‘atheists’ and ‘agnostics’ in Dublin in 1911. As far as I can work out, a grand total of 32 (8 Atheists and 24 Agnostics). The population of Dublin was 480, 296.

While no one besides your family and the Census enumerator probably saw your form, it still must have been a massive step to put down either of these terms in 1911.

Approximately 7,004 people in Dublin are listed in the ‘other’ section when it came to religion. This means that either through misspelling or genuine belief they did not list any of the main eleven religions (Roman Catholic, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland, Church of England, Presbyterian, Methodist, Independent, Baptist, Society of Friend/Quaker, Jew, Plymouth Brethren) and were not one of the 1,170 who refused to give any information on religion.

From spending a couple of hours trawling through this ‘other’ list of only 7,000 thousand people it seems quite a few, by accident, put down where they were born or their occupation in the space assigned for religion.

Others put down ‘IC’ meaning ‘Church of Ireland’ which wasn’t picked up while a huge large number misspelled Catholic and put down ‘R Cathrlick’, ‘Catorlick’, ‘R Catcholic’ ‘R Catolic’ or something similar. Quite a few were members of smaller Protestant churches like Episcopalian, Unitarian, Lutheran, Moravian, Wesleyan etc. who weren’t large enough to be included with the ‘big boys’.

However I was able to find a small handful of people who listed themselves ‘Atheist’ or ‘Agnostic’ in the 1911 census. I reckon this list is relatively comprehensive.

Here are some of their stories:

‘Atheist’ Martin Gertelesen (29) from Denmark, a Naval Engineer docked at Dun Laoghaire.

The ‘Agnostic’ Powell family from England living at 18 North Earl Street, Dublin 1. The head of the family, William (44), was a manager of a Boots pharmacy.

German Fanny Sophia Shields, (55) an ‘agnostic’, who lived with her Protestant Irish family at 12 Vernon Terrace, Clontarf, Dublin 3.

An English cooper and self-described ‘agnostic’ George Ford (24) boarding at 32.2, Montpelier Hill, Arbour Hill, Dublin 7 who lived with ten other people all of whom were Catholics or Protestants.

Robert Monteith (33) Commission Agent from Wicklow. An atheist, he lived with his Catholic family at 14.2, Monck Place, Phibsboro.

Agnostics John Forsyth (55) and son James (29), both Irish born bootmakers living at 1.1, Bride Street, Dublin 8. John’s other six (!) sons were all Catholic.

Agnostic father and son. Forsyth family, 1911.

A General Labourer and ‘agnostic’ by the name of Peter Ennis (26) who lived with his Catholic brother and mother at 4.1, Crampton Quay, Dublin 2.

James Canty (61), a porter at (James) Gate Brewery who was an ‘agnostic’ living with his Church of Ireland family at 5, Sweeney’s Lane [demolished 1930s].

Two English Agnostic Civil Servants in their 20s boarding with a Baptist family at 3, Ovoca Road, Portobello, Dublin 8.

Dubliner Michael Kavanagh (71), a self described ‘secularist’ and boot maker, living with his Catholic wife and kids at 15.1 South Anne Street, Dublin 2.

Michael Kennedy (71), self confessed secularist.

Martin Joseph Burke (34), from Dublin, an architect with the ‘H M Office of Works Ireland’ and an ‘agnostic’. Living with his German Catholic wife and child at 8, Eglinton Terrace, Donnybrook, Dublin 4.

Dubliner Joseph Patrick Savage (41), a clerk at a bakery and ‘agnostic’, living with his Presbyterian wife and family at 3.2 , Beechwood Avenue Upper, Dublin 6

Hilary Martin O’Kelly (65), Dublin born retired ‘Superintendent of Telegraph in India’ and ‘agnostic’ living with his Protestant wife and Catholic servants at 19, Leeson Park, Dublin 6.

Armagh-born ‘Agnostic’ William Henry St. Amond (59), a Commercial Traveller of Millinery [Animal] Furs, living with his Scottish Presbyterian wife at 6.1, William’s Park, Rathmines, Dublin 6.

Dubliner William Meledy Jr. (31), ‘agnostic’ and ‘Coach Body Maker’, living with his Catholic dad and brother at 5.4, Chatham Row, Dublin 2.

William Meledy Jr, 1911

Then there’s  English born ‘atheist’ William Towney (26), lamplighter, who was living with his uncle and family at 31.1 Middle Gardiner Street, Dublin 1.  His uncle James, a railway guard, and the rest of the family were Catholic.

Charles Perr (62), ‘atheist’ and photographer from England, who was boarding with a family at 13.1 Sarsfield Street, Dublin 7.

An English ‘commerical traveller’ who dealt in ‘ammunition’ by the name of Leonard Harcourt Labone (26) his wife Katie and their infant son who were all ‘atheist’ living at 9 Whitton Road, Terenure, Dublin 6.

‘Agnostic’ Arthur Corcoran (22), an ‘Abstractor Irish Land Commission Civil Servant’ from Dublin, living with his family at 11.3 Amiens Street, Dublin 1.

An English ‘coffin maker’ John Henry White (4) who listed himself, his wife and their small children as ‘agnostic’. They were living at 10.3 Camden Street, Dublin 2.

The job might have had something to do with it? Agnostic coffin maker John Henry White.

‘Agnostic’ Victor Lionel Manning (26), a Civil Servant from Dublin, living with his aunt at 26.2 Mountpleasant Square, Dublin 6.

A London bachelor by the name of John Burke (34) who was ‘Goods Porter at Railway Station’ and an ‘atheist’ living at 3.4 Bishop Street, Dublin 8.

Englishman Edward Berham Anderson (25), a ‘Distiltery Research Chemist’, living with his wife Beatrice who were both ‘agnostic’ at 18 Gilford Avenue, Sandymount, Dublin 4.

An ‘agnostic’ Scottish civil servant, Robert V Laurenson (22) boarding at 21.4 Claremount Road, Sandymount, Dublin 4 who worked as a ‘Second Division Civil Servant’.

Dublin born Philip McGrath  (47) a ‘Coach Body Maker’, who listed himself as ‘atheist’ while his wife and four children opted for ‘Roman Catholic’. The McGrath family lived at 25.4 Blackhall Street, Dublin 7.

Atheist Dubliner Philip McGrath, a Coach Maker, with his Catholic family. 1911

‘Agnostic’ Robert John Smith (54) from Dublin, a ‘Bank Cashier’ living with his Catholic daughter Mary Hutchison at 25 Crumlin Town (?) , Terenure, Dublin 6.

Cyril Dugdale (25) Civil Servant and ‘agnostic’ living at 32, St. Columba’s Road Lower, Drumcondra, Dublin 9 with his Norwegian Lutheran wife.

Single ‘atheist’ Sydney Andeson Dougherty (21), a Dubliner with no occupation, living with his mother at 17.3 Charlemont Place, Dublin 2.

Albert Edward Davis (25), Insurance Agent from Limerick and ‘agnostic’, living with his English Protestant wife at 5, Hollybank Avenue, Rathmines, Dublin 6.

‘Agnostic’ George William Parker (49), a Teacher and Author with a M.A. in Mathematics from Trinity College, who lived with his Church of Ireland wife and family at 19 Temple Gardens, Milltown, Dublin 6.

Robert John Smith, bank cashier and agnostic.

English John Lowe Featherstone (49) and a Civil Engineer, who lived with wife and two sons – all ‘agnostic’ at 73 Kenilworth Square, Rathmines, Dublin 6.

English born Percy Giènd (26) who put down ‘nothing at all’ under religion. The night the census was taken he was in the home of John Cairns, a poulter from Cavan, at 63 Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin 1.

Then there’s young Desmond (6) and Mary (4) Kidd who have ‘not yet decided’ on their religion. Cute! Living with their Protestant parent at 38, St. Kevin’s Park, Rathmines, Dublin 6.

Finally, the English family Hodgkinson living at 22 Swords Street, Arbour Hill, Dublin 7 who all put down ‘Not Members of any Recognised Religious Body and Do Not Hold any Belief in Particular’. Atheist by another name!

Non-committed Hodgkinson family, 1911

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